● Formulating policies, legal and regulatory frameworks, development strategies and long-term plans governing meteorological services; formulating and issuing rules and regulations, technical standards and practices governing meteorological services, and supervising their execution; undertaking relevant administrative reviews.
● Participating in the central government decision-making process in meteorological disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation; organizing a joint trans-regional and inter-departmental prevention campaign to combat major severe weather events; organizing and guiding the efforts to prevent and mitigate disasters induced by thunderstorm & lightning, heavy fog and other meteorological disasters; and being responsible for managing the local weather modification operations.
● Organizing to formulate and implement the plans for meteorological disaster prevention and preparedness; organizing the management work in emergency response to meteorological disaster prevention and preparedness; being responsible for providing meteorological support for public events; undertaking the operation and management of the early warning issuance platform for the nationwide public events.
● Formulating and implementing plans for meteorological disaster prevention and preparedness; organizing the management work for emergency responses to meteorological disaster prevention and preparedness; being responsible for providing meteorological support for public events; undertaking the operation and management of the early warning issuance platform for nationwide public events.
● Exercising management on the national weather forecasts and warnings, short-term climate predictions, urban environment-oriented meteorological forecasts, fire risk weather forecasts, space weather monitoring and warning and the issuance of climate impact assessments; organizing and guiding the exploitation and conservation of climatic resources; organizing and reviewing the meteorological certifications of state key construction projects, major regional economic development projects, and urban & rural construction planning.
● Organizing major meteorological research projects, and promoting wider applications of the proven research findings to meteorological operations; guiding and coordinating meteorological education and training; organizing the public outreach of meteorological knowledge to increase public awareness of meteorological disaster prevention & mitigation and climate resources.
● Managing international cooperative activities in meteorology; participating in activities of the World Meteorological Organization and other international meteorological institutions on behalf of the Chinese government; and conducting cooperation and exchanges with the meteorological institutions of other countries or regions.
● Providing leadership for the meteorological establishments nationwide; managing as the main governing body the meteorological bureaus at the provincial level in terms of planning and finance, institutional structures, personnel and human resources, scientific research, training and operational development; and guiding the development of local meteorological services.
● Assisting local people’s governments in guiding ideological and cultural activities of local meteorological staff.
● Undertaking any other tasks assigned by the State Council.
A Dual Leadership System
The China Meteorological Administration (CMA) is a public institution that is directly affiliated to the State Council. Its predecessor was the Central Military Commission Meteorological Bureau established in December 1949. Under a unified and hierarchical management, the meteorological establishments nationwide are led both by the CMA and the local people's governments, with the former as the core leadership. In China, meteorological operational services are operated at five levels: i.e. national, regional, provincial, prefectural and county levels.
Authorized by the State Council, the China Meteorological Administration discharges the administrative functions in supervising the overall meteorological work nationwide, while meteorological authorities at various levels are responsible for the local meteorological work in their respective administrative regions.
Institutions under CMA
Chinese meteorological work is managed by law. The Meteorology Law of the People's Republic of China came into effect on 1 January 2000, which is to regulate the meteorological activities on a legal basis, and it holds meteorological departments responsible for discharging administrative management functions.
The Chinese meteorological work has embarked on a legal track of development. China promulgated relevant laws and regulations such as Meteorology Law of the People's Republic of China, the Regulations on Management of Weather Modification and the Regulations on Prevention of and Preparedness for Meteorological Disasters. The CMA issued a series of regulatory documents and 16 departmental rules and regulations including the Meteorological Administrative Punishment Method, the Meteorological Administrative Reconsideration Method, the Administrative Regulations on Thunderstorm Prevention and Mitigation, the Administrative Regulations on Meteorological Data Sharing, the Administrative Regulations on Balloon Release, the Administrative Regulations on Meteorological Forecast Issuance and Media Coverage, the Methods on Protection of Meteorological Observation Environment and Facilities, the Administrative Regulations on Thunderstorm Prevention and Mitigation (revised), the Administrative Regulations on Balloon Release (revised), the Administrative Regulations on Professional Qualifications for Thunderstorm Prevention Projects, the Regulations on Review of Thunderstorm Protection Device Design and Completion Acceptance, and the Regulations on Meteorological Sector Management. The local governments have launched 70 local meteorological rules and regulations.
The CMA actively pushes forward the standardization of meteorology, which allows meteorological standards to play a supportive role in meteorological disaster prevention and mitigation, response to climate change and modernization of meteorological operation. The CMA also promotes standardized and regulated operational services such as public meteorological services, forecasts and predictions, integrated meteorological observations, meteorological information sharing and technical support. In recent years, the CMA issued the National Meteorological Standard System and Standardization Development Plan 2009-2011 and the Comments on Enhancing Meteorological Standardization, and formulated Measures for Meteorological Standardization Management and the Procedures for Meteorological Standardization and other rules, having set up a meteorological standard system, which covers all areas of meteorological operations, to further improve technical bodies working on meteorological standardization.
By the end of 2010, the CMA had issued for implementation 20 national standards and 121 meteorological sector standards; it has established 4 standard committees such as National standard committees on Prevention of and Preparedness for Meteorological Disasters, and the Nationwide Sector Standard Committee on Thunderstorm & Lightning Disaster Prevention. Such standards like the Classification of Meteorological Drought and the Grades of Sand and Dust Storm Weather among others have played an important role in combat againsting natural disasters, for which they won the China Standard Innovation Award.
The local meteorological authorities discharge their management responsibilities for meteorological disasters prevention and preparedness, meteorological observation environment protection, meteorological information release and dissemination, balloon release, lightning protection and other related social activities. Through training and examination, more than 11,000 people nationwide received the meteorological administrative enforcement or oversight certificates. The meteorological administrative enforcement teams have been further enhanced in combination of full-time and part-time workers. Through joint inspection by law and regulations in collaboration with the National People's Congress, governmental departments and others to intensity enforcement against violations, especially those that have major impacts on the society and draw wider public concerns. Various acts of violations have been effectively contained. In recent years, over 4000 illegal cases were addressed nationwide.
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